© IRAN-RESIST.ORG – Feb 02 2008 | This time, the author of the Nouvel Obs block calendar didn’t mistake : on the 1st February 1979, Khomeini entered in Iran after 15 years of exile. At his arrival, he made a speech on the illegality of the Shah’s power. His speech was matching with the expectations of the democrats who were for long time described as laic (Mossadegh, Bakhtiar…) and who demanded that the king submits to the 1906 constitution and to the Parliament, two symbols of the limits of the absolute power. The non respect of the 1906 constitution made the Shah a dictator ! However the Iranian, European or American ones who followed the opinions of the Iranian democrats probably never read this constitution that is still presented as a laic one.
| Shocking Document |

In 1906, Iran became a constitutional monarchy. The constitution was then called “conditional fundamental law.” The adjective “conditional” meant : lawfulness on the condition of the respect for Islam (Koran, Sharia…). The text that follows proves it. The Constitutional Revolution of 1906 [1] that established such conditional law was partly led by the clergy and with the British support.

We attribute the promulgation of such conditional constitution to the signature of Mozaffar Al-Din Shah Qajar although he was at that time paralyzed and unable to sign. Anyhow, on the 5th August 1906, the Iranian monarchy and its Parliament -i.e. the people- were officially put under the supervision of the Shiite clergy. Extract of the outlines of this social Islamist contract.


Right to vote

The article 3 stipulates that women, foreigners and minor people -under the age of 25, people recognized for their harmful opinions, people having a police record, military staff belong to the categories of people who are not allowed to vote.


Aptitude for elections

The article 4 stipulates that the elected representatives must be fully literate in Persian language – at that time the sole literates were the mullahs and the only one kind of education was the religious schools. They must be as well Iranian people with Iranian origins, they “must be known locally”, “mustn’t belong to the government”, must be between 30 and 70 and they “must have some knowledge regarding the State affairs” -Sharia. The article 7 states that “each voter disposes of a single voice and can vote only into a -social- class.”


Complement of the 30th December 1906

The fundamental laws of the 30th December 1906 defined the role of the Parliament and its competences within the system. Besides it defined a bicameral Parliament. The article 1 created the justice-based Consultative National Assembly. The article 43 stipulates that it must be composed of another assembly, the Senate.


Complement of the 7th October 1907

The complementary fundamental laws of the 7th October 1907 created the rights and governing system charter.


Islam supervision : Article 1 and 2 of the Constitution

The articles 1 and 2 of the law establish Islam as the official religion of Iran and specify that any law of the nation must be approved by a committee from the Shiite clergy.


Article 1 of the Constitution

The official religion of Iran is Islam, in accordance with the Shiite doctrine, and the Shah has to profess and promote it.

Article 2 of the Constitution

At no instant, no legal act of the National Assembly should be in contradiction with the holy principles of Islam or with the law established His Holiness the Best of Humanity –i.e. Muhammad.

Actually the article 2 contains fundamental precisions about the Parliament and its laws in accordance with the Sharia. In its introduction, this article asserts that the consultative National Assembly is under quadruple protection that is thus classified in decreasing order :

Firstly the spiritual supervision of the Imam Mahdi, may God hasten his delightful coming !
Secondly the Shah -King, considered by the conditional Constitution as the King of the Kings -Shah an Shah- of Islam, in charge of the promotion of Islam.
Thirdly the clergy and the hojjatol-eslam -or mullahs, may God multiply their number ! They arrive right after the Shah an Shah of Islam and they are his deputies -far before the ministers and the government.
And fourthly arrives the protection of the Iranian nation -nation or mellat is a variant of the Umma.

Recall| At no instant, no legal act of the National Assembly should be in contradiction with the holy principles of Islam or with the law established His Holiness the Best of Humanity –i.e. Muhammad.

By getting the Assembly under their supervision, such constitution granted the mullahs -ulemas, mojtahed, hojjatol-eslam or ayatollah- the right to determine if the proposed laws were in accordance or not with the principles of Islam. It has been officially decreed that at any moment a committee composed of at least five mullahs would have to sit in the Parliament.


Election of the Shiite supervisors’ council

The ulemas and the hojatoleslam have to present to the consultative National Assembly the names of about twenty of them who would have the attributes that are mentioned above. The members of the consultative National Assembly must, by unanimous acclamation or by vote, appoint five among those candidates and acknowledge them as members so they can discuss and examine all the subjects submitted to the Assembly.

Their task is to repudiate and reject partly or entirely the proposals that are in contradiction with the holy laws of Islam so to not make them obtain the title of legality. In this respect any decision of this ecclesiastic committee has to be followed and respected and this article must remain unchanged until the apparition of His Holiness the Imam Mahdi, may God hasten his delightful coming !

Decoding| i.e. for ever if we consider that any contestation of the religion is immediately punished for death. Besides the article 7 rejects the suspension of the constitution.

The article 8 offers “the equality of rights” in view of the law. However as the law is the charia, this article that is apparently democratic is the confirmation of the submission of every resident to the charia.

And if the article 9 stipulates that “every individual -including the foreigners as specified by the article 6- are protected regarding the respect of their life, their property and their residence from any pollution. The articles 15-17 give even more security advantages to the land owners, i.e. feudal people and clergy.

Precisions| such a rigid text oddly ensures the respect of non Muslims in a country that is entirely under the supervision of Islam. Normally the fact that unbelievers could have rights on Islam territory is not conceivable. But it was necessary to treat considerately the comfort and justify the immunity of the British friends of the mullahs.

The Kings of the Pahlavi dynasty didn’t apply such libelous constitution. From its beginning to its end, it contains all kind of articles to prevent any way of emancipation and evolution. As an example, we can quote that article 20 stipulating that “every publication, except from heretic books and any publication that would be harmful to religion -Islam, are free.”

The application of such article would have lead to the end of any laic education in Iran and of science research but also to the rejection of any written contesting of charia laws that make women a sexual object from the age of nine. The Kings of the Pahlavi dynasty not only refused to apply this static constitution but also they also took steps to decrease its hold on the State through the abolition of the veil wearing, female emancipation, mandatory, mixed, laic and free education, suspension of the law based on the charia, foundation of a laic university… Those reforms were carried out in spite of the hostility coming from a Parliament that was dominated by the mullahs and feudal people.

Nowadays the Iranians are awaking late. They question the naivety that made them follow the enemies of those both exceptional kings and they wish the return of the Shah. This when the mullahs recruited feather mercenaries -such as Ramine Kamrane- to write colorful satirical tracts about our beautiful -islamist- constitution of 1906 that is described as a unique, early and modern document !

The objective is to format the Western opinion so that every difference between the respects to the letter of such constitution would be immediately called a return to dictatorship.

Our duty was to dispel any misunderstanding regarding this constitution that is so pleasant to the mullahs but also to the Americans, those great defenders of -Iraqi style- constitutional models !

All our articles in English...
The french version of this article :
- Iran, 1er février 1979 : Khomeiny et ses partisans démocrates
- (2 FÉVRIER 2008)

| Mots Clefs | Institutions : Les Racines de la Révolution Islamique |

| Mots Clefs | Histoire : Révolution Islamique |

| Mots Clefs | Mollahs & co. : Khomeiny |

| Mots Clefs | Histoire : Mossadegh |
| Mots Clefs | Histoire : Pompiers Pyromanes |

| Mots Clefs | Histoire : Qajar |

| Mots Clefs | Histoire : Mohammad-Reza Shah (le Chah) |

[1The historical origins of the 1906 constitution | For Iranian people, the mullahs’ power matches with British interests. Those ones always had important networks in Iran and the most recent works that were carried out by researchers about the history of Iran prove the British origin of the ideas that were developed under the constitutionalist revolution. According to the document written by Ms Homa Nategh we published, those ideas included the creation of a “God’s party” that was named Hezbollah and the creation of “an Islamist absolutist state in accordance with the aspirations of the Iranians.” The majority of Iranians ignore the details of the links between the mullahs and the British except that the Iranians notice the great complicity between the Persian BBC and the mullahs’ regime. We say commonly that under their beard, the mullahs carry the label “Made in England”.